How Many Human Species Were There?

Today every human on earth is known scientifically as a Homo sapien. But if you dig a bit back into time, say around 700 to 200 thousand years ago, give or take a few thousand, you’ll find that there were a number of other Homo species. This time period is called the Middle Pleistocene, and during this time there may have been up to 7 different Homo species living simultaneously (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Phylogenetic tree of the Homo species, with geologic (red) and speculative (white) time ranges. Here Neanderthals and Denisovans are identified as subspecies to modern humans, i.e., Homo sapien neanderthalensis (Madeira, 2019).
  1. The legitimacy of a species.
  2. Acceptance of reliable dating techniques.
Figure 2: Travel map of Homo sapiens moving out of Africa, which is similar to the suggested pathway that Homo erectus took before, except they never made it to the Americas (National Geographic, 2018).
Figure 3: Facial reconstruction of a Neanderthal (Smithsonian, 2020)

Environmental Scientist, Christian, and above all else, a Nerd. I am here to write about the things that interest me

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